Exploring the relation between childhood trauma, temperamental traits and mindfulness in borderline personality disorder

Matilde Elices, Juan C. Pascual, Cristina Carmona, Ana Martín-Blanco, Albert Feliu-Soler, Elisabet Ruiz, Montserrat Gomà-i-Freixanet, Víctor Pérez and Joaquim Soler. BMC Psychiatry (2015) 15:180

Abstract
Background: Deficits in mindfulness-related capacities have been described in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little research has been conducted to explore which factors could explain these deficits. This study assesses the relationship between temperamental traits and childhood maltreatment with mindfulness in BPD. Methods: A total of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), temperamental traits were assessed using the Zuckerman-Khulman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), and mindfulness capabilities were evaluated with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses were performed including only those CTQ-SF and ZKPQ subscales that showed simultaneous significant correlations with mindfulness facets. Results indicated that neuroticism and sexual abuse were predictors of acting with awareness; and neuroticism, impulsiveness and sexual abuse were significant predictors of non-judging. Temperamental traits did not have a moderator effect on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mindfulness facets. Conclusions: These results provide preliminary evidence for the effects of temperamental traits and childhood trauma on mindfulness capabilities in BPD individuals. Further studies are needed to better clarify the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on mindfulness capabilities and to determine the causal relations between these variables.

Keywords: Borderline personality disorder, Mindfulness, Childhood maltreatment, Temperament

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